Thursday, February 9, 2017

Spring 2017 News & Notes

High Desert Veterinary Service

Chrysann Collatos VMD,PhD,DipACVIMLA

775-969-3495 (Office)           742-2823 (Cell)
HighDesertEquine.com
Building Healthy Partners
Spring 2017 News & Notes

Ø Clinic Schedule
Ø Spring Hormonal Confusion!
Ø Some Advice on Drying Out
What a winter! Many of our horses have been unusually inactive due to environmental conditions. As the weather improves pay careful attention to your horse’s feet and haircoat. Mother Nature’s generous gifts of moisture and warm temperatures provide the perfect environment for infectious organisms that cause thrush, subsolar abscesses and “rain rot”. Please read this newsletter carefully and be proactive in keeping your animals healthy this year.
Amanda and I look forward to seeing you on one of our clinic days in March,
Dr. Chrysann
Spring Clinic Schedule
Routine Spring exams include  EWT, West Nile, and flu/rhino vaccination plus deworming or fecal examination, dentistry consult and sheath cleaning.  To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:
  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!
Location                                                    Date
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1          Sat Mar 4 
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2          Fri Mar 10
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1            Sun Mar 5
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2            Sat Mar 18
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1          Sat Mar 11
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2          Fri Mar 17
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Mar 12
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Sat Mar 25  
Sierra Valley                                             Sun Mar 26 
South & West Reno                                Fri Mar 24
Discounted prices ONLY AVAILABLE Clinic Day
Farm Call (per location)              $9.00
Wellness Exam (mandatory)     $14.00
West Nile                                        $32.00
FluRhino                                          $29.00
Rabies                                              $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                 $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                    $14.00
Coggins Test                                 $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation           $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                    $18.00
Pre-registered microchip             $35.00
Dentistry Consult                       No Charge


Spring Transitional Period
(aka Crazy Mare Time)

 Last week a client called about a performance mare who kept posturing to urinate and looking back at her left flank, but had a great appetite and normal manure.  Another trainer called because a normally cooperative mare was kicking out when asked to canter.  Upon investigation, I discovered that both these mares’ problems were related to the seasonal nature of the equine reproductive cycle.

Seasonal variation in daylight has a profound influence on the mare’s reproductive performance.  Increasing day length improves the mare's reproductive efficiency while shortened days disrupt reproductive regulation.  Daylight stimulates the production of melatonin by the brain’s pineal gland, which in turn starts a complex cascade of hormonal events which influence the ovaries to develop and release follicles. For successful conception to occur, an egg must ovulate, be fertilized, and arrive in a uterus which is ready to accept and nourish it.  No simple task.

The transition from the short days of winter when most mares stop cycling all together, to the long days of June, when fertility is at its highest, is a gradual process.  During the spring and fall, mares enter a period of anovulatory receptivity, or the transitional period.  At this time, they often exhibit erratic estrus behavior, and while they appear to be in standing heat and accept a stallion, there often is not an associated ovulation of a mature follicle.  When a transitional mare does ovulate appropriately, if the hormonal sequence necessary to maintain  the critical early critical of pregnancy is unbalanced,  the embryo may be lost.  Particularly in the spring, this transitional period is characterized by long, erratic heat cycles without ovulation.

No wonder mares may act whacky in Feburary! Not only are they dealing with hormonal imbalance, they also may experience ovarian pain associated with large, non-ovulating follicles.

Mares with placid dispositions may not seem affected by the ups and downs of hormonal transitions while others are truly distressed during these phases. Some performance horses exhibit irritable behavior and are difficult to train.  Trainer’s may seek ways to stabilize reproductive activity and help these troubled mares achieve behavioral balance.  There are many oral supplements available over the counter which claim to improve the demeanor of irritable mares,and subcutaneous cattle hormonal implants have been used, but none of these methods have any scientific basis.  Compounded injectable progesterone in olive oil can be used intramuscularly but the injections are irritating and yield variable results. There is a well researched long acting altrenogest injection manufactured by BET Pharm, however the cost is prohibitive for many clients.

 The gold standard for preventing cycling remains the daily administration of oral Altrenogest, a synthetic progesterone (Regu-Mate or Altresyn).

Once the transitional period is over and mares are cycling regularly, reproductive efficiency rapidly improves. Performance horses exhibit improved behavior and brood mares conceive successfully. The "normal" mare has a 21 day heat cycle.  She is not receptive for 14-15 days (diestrus), then comes into heat for 4-7 days (estrus), ovulating 12-24 hours before behavioral signs of estrus disappear.

So, when your mare is acting like a maniac this month, remember that her behavior may be due to "raging hormones"! Speak with me about management practices that may improve your breeding success or help your mare's disposition.  


Some Advice on Drying Out

As the flood waters and ice recede, we are eager to get back in the saddle. Whatever your riding discipline, consider the consequences of this wet winter and get proactive!

Hoof Care  First and foremost: feet!  I see lots of shedding frogs, low heels and long toes in the spring.  This winter environmental cleanliness has been a real challenge, and many horses are standing in manure that goes through repetitive freeze/thaw cycles. Hooves develop callouses in response to harsh ice.  When the surface thaws, fecal bacteria seep into small defects in the thickened sole and frog, creating the perfect setup for thrush or subsolar abscessation. 

Preventive measures that MAKE A DIFFERENCE:
1) Get a hoof pick and wire brush  and thoroughly pick you horse’s feet every day!
2) Remove accumulated manure and organic material from pens and turn outs
3) Schedule a trim and consultation with your farrier!

Body Conditon As you get your horse’s feet in shape, start grooming!  Get that winter hair loose, check for any skin conditions and feel your horse’s back and barrel – is their body condition what you hope for?  Many horses gain or lose unnoticed weight under winter hair coats and blankets. Your spring clinic appointment is a good time to ask  Dr. Chrysann about your horse’s nutrition program.

Horses and humans alike, let’s dry out, get out, get moving, and look forward to a spectacular spring flower season in our high desert piece of heaven!


Call us today to schedule your

Spring Clinic Appointment.

I believe that education is the key to evolution. I believe that animals are the key to compassion. I believe the learning never stops.

Monday, September 5, 2016

Fall Clinics 2016

High Desert Veterinary Service

Chrysann Collatos VMD,PhD,DipACVIMLA

775-969-3495 (Office)           742-2823 (Cell)
hidvet@gmail.com      HighDesertEquine.com
Building Healthy Partners
Fall 2016 News & Notes:
Clinic Schedule
Smoke and your Horse
 Healing with Honey
Hello everyone,
                We all recognize this reality living in the dry high desert. I took this picture standing next to the horse trailer, preparing to evacuate horses from a client’s property. In the aftermath of emergency evacuation, a microchip can play a crucial role in reuniting horses and owners. Pease consider microchipping your horse this fall, and read more below about caring for your horse when faced with environmental heat and smoke challenges.
               
I am here to serve you and your equine companions, with over 25 years experience, and a profound commitment to building healthy partners,
Dr. Chrysann 

Fall Clinic Schedule
Routine Fall exams include flu/rhino vaccination plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.  Also consider Microchipping!
To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:
  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!
Location                                                    Date
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1       Sat Sept 10 
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2       Fri Sept 16
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1         Fri Sept 9
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2         Sun Sept 18
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1        Sat Sep 17
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2        Fri Sept 23
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Sept 11
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Sept 30  
South & West Reno 1                        Mon  Sept 19
South & West Reno                         Sat Sept 24
Discounted prices ONLY AVAILABLE Clinic Day
Farm Call                                    $ 9.00
Wellness Exam (mandatory)      $14.00
West Nile                                     $32.00
FluRhino                                      $27.00
Rabies                                          $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                   $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                        $14.00
Coggins Test                                  $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation               $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                       $18.00
Pre-registered microchip             $39.00


Healing with Honey

Wounds, especially those located below the  knee or hock, are notorious sources of frustration for horse owners and veterinarians alike. Understanding how wounds heal is the first step in designing an appropriate wound management plan; choosing a wound dressing that supports the body’s healing mechanisms is second.

1)       Immediately after a wound occurs, the body begins its own clean up process.  White blood cells migrate into the wound to eliminate foreign material, dead tissue and infectious agents. These cells exit the wound as pus.  PUS IS A NORMAL, HEALTHY RESPONSE TO A WOUND IN THE FIRST FEW DAYS.  It is important to keep the wound environment moist in this early healing period.
2)       Once the wound environment is clean, and dead tissue has been removed, the next healing phase involves rebuilding tissue.  The body builds a scaffold of collagen, and delicate new skin cells and blood vessels climb along this framework, repairing the wound defect.  During this phase, the wound should be protected from invasion by secondary bacteria, and inflammation should be minimized.
3)       Finally, the body spends a long time (months in severe wounds) strengthening and remodeling the fragile young tissue that has filled the wound.  Now it is important to keep the tissue pliable and soft with emollient substances like lanolin.
Our job is to enhance the cleaning and restructuring phases to decrease time to wound closure, improve cosmetic outcome, and avoid problems with exuberant granulation tissue (proud flesh) and wound infection.  This is where honey can be uniquely useful.  Honey is a biologic wound dressing; while each of its beneficial properties can be found individually in pharmaceutical products, only in honey are they all present together working in cooperation to enhance healing while maintaining a moist wound environment.
How does honey work? The high sugar content of honey draws water out of wounds and reduces edema (fluid swelling).  Honey is slightly acidic, which inhibits bacterial growth and acts with the high sugar content to pull water out of bacterial cells. Honey from Manuka trees in New Zealand has additional unique properties. Researchers at the University of Sydney studying the efficacy of Manuka honey in equine wound healing reported that Manuka honey treated wounds had healthier tissue regrowth, which they believe is related not only to its unique antibacterial effects of the honey, but also to Manuka honey’s positive influence on the horse’s immune system.
All types of honey possess beneficial wound healing qualities. The antibacterial activity of most honey’s is due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which can be inactivated by enzymes normally present in the healing wound. In contrast, the antibacterial component of manuka honey is a small water-soluble molecule, methylglyoxal, that diffuses easily through the wound environment, and is resistant to enzymatic degradation. This compound also penetrates the biofilm which forms in wounds, protecting bacteria from the action of many systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. Finally, Manuka honey is available in sterile, medical grade preparations. Non-medical grade honey often harbors bacteria that are not dangerous when used for food consumpution, but which can colonize wounds causing secondary bacterial infections.  For all of these reasons, medical grade Manuka honey products are the safest, most effective choice for wound treatment.

We recently used Manuka honey on this chronically infected hoof following a hoof wall resection. The healing of the disrupted coronary band was rapid and the integrity of the coronary band was completely restored.

Smoke and Your Horse

Smoke is an unhealthy combination of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, soot, hydrocarbons, and other organic substances. Smoke particulates can irritate horses’ eyes and respiratory tracts, and hamper their breathing.

The simplest thing you can do to limit the damaging effects of smoke on your horse’s airway is to limit your horse’s activity when smoke is visible.   Increased airflow and turbulence that accompany athletic activity can significantly increase the inflammation and damage to delicate cells lining the respiratory tract. In addition, if possible, misters and fans can be used to improve air quality in your horse’s environment.

Human air quality advisements can be applied to your horse as well.  If your eyes are burning and you smell and taste smoke, then assume that your horse is feeling as uncomfortable as you are.

Most importantly, when smoke has been particularly heavy, remember that it takes time for airways to recover fully. Four to six weeks can be required for airways to recuperate from severe smoke exposure, and early return to exercise can delay healing and increase the risk of long term airway damage.

The best way to combat heat and smoke is through hydration. You can:
  1. Provide clean, fresh water at all times
  2. Water your horse’s hay and feed grain as wet mashes
  3. Put sprinklers out in turn outs to reduce dust and smoke and increase moisture in the air

Call us today to schedule your  
Fall Clinic appointment and join us

Building Healthy Partners.


I believe that education is the key to evolution. I believe that animals are the key to compassion. I believe the learning never stops.

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Fall Clinic Schedule




Routine Fall exams include flu/rhino vaccination plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.  Also this year consider Microchip!

To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:

  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Sept 5
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Sept 11
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1            Fri Sept 4
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2            Sun Sept 13
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1          Sat Sept 12
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2          Fri Sept 25
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Sept 6
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Sept 25  
South & West Reno 1                            Mon  Sept 14 
South & West Reno                               Sat Sept 26

Discounted prices ONLY AVAILABLE Clinic Day

Farm Call                                     $ 8.00
Wellness Exam (mandatory)    $12.00
West Nile                                     $32.00
FluRhino                                       $27.00
Rabies                                           $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                   $14.00
Coggins Test                                $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation           $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                   $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)         No charge!
Pre-registered microchip          $35.00

Thursday, February 26, 2015

spring 2015 News & Notes


High Desert Veterinary Service

Chrysann Collatos VMD,PhD,DipACVIMLA
775-969-3495 (Office)          742-2823 (Cell)
hidvet@gmail.com       HighDesertEquine.com
Building Healthy Partners
 
Spring 2015 News & Notes:
Ø Vaccination Clinic Schedule
Ø Veterinary Networking and Referral
Ø Adverse Vaccination Reactions
 
Here we are again, moving into a new year.  I hope everyone is healthy and ready to ride!
After this VERY warm, VERY dry winter, both plants and animals may be subject to unusual disease patterns this spring. Vaccination against vector borne diseases such as West Nile Virus will be particularly important this year, and I strongly recommend a fecal exam on every horse to identify those infected by overwintering parasites.
Consult the clinic schedule in this flyer, and call to confirm your appointment today.  I will see you then!
Building Healthy Partners,
Dr, Chrysann

Veterinary Networking & Referral
     Last week a veterinarian called me for consultation on a horse he had diagnosed with equine metabolic syndrome.  The veterinarian had some questions about the horse’s latest laboratory values, and how to move forward with a treatment plan.  I offered my interpretation of the horse’s laboratory results and made some suggestions regarding treatment . The veterinarian called me because I am a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, which means that after receiving my veterinary degree I successfully completed a 3 year clinical residency training program and a rigorous 8 hour examination process and case report publication to ensure my advanced knowledge and experience diagnosing and treating internal medicine problems.     

     On the flip side, I called my friend Dr. Robert Hunt for advice on a yearling with an atypical stifle lameness.  Dr. Hunt is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and resident surgeon at Hagyard-Davidson Magee in Lexington, Kentucky. Bob and I discussed the case as he examined the digital xrays I had emailed him. He gave me his opinion on the radiographic changes and some suggestions on treatment options. 

     This type of congenial exchange of information goes on, often without your knowledge, as a routine part of your animal’s veterinary care. The variety of problems presented to the ambulatory equine clinician is enormous, and maintaining this network of colleagues is a critical part of my service to you.  After 27 years as a practicing veterinarian, the majority of patients I see exhibit clinical signs with which I am familiar, and diagnostic and treatment plans are frequently routine.  However, when an animal presents with a complex complaint outside of my expertise, I do not hesitate to seek consultation.  Sometimes the initial conversation with a specialist leads to the referral of the patient for advanced diagnostic evaluation.

     Helping you decide when to refer a patient is an important part of my job.  You should never feel awkward asking for a second opinion from a specialist - I am here to help you find the most effective plan to return your horse to full health and athletic activity .   Following referral for advanced diagnostics and evaluation by a specialist, your horse will return to my care for ongoing treatment and rehabilitation.  By asking me to make the initial contact leading to referral, you insure that any diagnostic findings, as well as my clinical notes, will be part of the information that will accompany your horse to their appointment.   

     There are 21 specialty colleges of veterinary medicine recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association! In the greater Reno area we have 2 board certified equine surgeons, 1 large animal internist (yours truly!), and a board certified ophthalmologist who sees both large and small animal patients.  UC Davis is 3 hours away and offers specialists in most of the large animal disciplines.  To learn more about veterinary specialists, google AVMA specialty organizations.
 

Adverse Vaccination Reactions –
What you Should Know

 Every spring I administer over a thousand vaccinations by deep intramuscular injection. I  field approximately 5 calls (< 1.5% of horses vaccinated) with reports of adverse vaccination reactions.  In my 27 years of veterinary practice, I have seen 3 true allergic/anaphylactic responses to intramuscular vaccination, and one serious vaccination complication associated with intranasal Strangles vaccine. Vaccination is a safe, effective way to protect your horse against disease. However, you should be familiar with adverse vaccination reactions, and how to respond.


By far the most common adverse reaction to vaccination is the simple sore neck. The day after vaccination you may notice that your mare is unwilling to move her head, and she exhibits pain and swelling at one of her vaccination sites. Occasionally the discomfort will be so severe that a horse will not lower their head to eat or drink, or will pull back if pressure is applied to a lead rope when they are haltered.  These inflammatory reactions typically resolve within 48 - 72 hours with treatment including warm compresses, offering food and water at a comfortable height, and administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication.

This "sore neck" reaction is NOT an allergic response to the vaccine. True allergic responses occur immediately, or within minutes, of vaccination. Rather, these are exaggerated inflammatory responses to the ingredient in the vaccine that stimulates the horse's immune system.  Called an adjuvant, this ingredient amplifies your horse’s response to the vaccine’s disease organism.  The ideal adjuvant is a potent stimulator of the immune system but does not cause severe local soreness. Unfortunately, individual horses may respond unfavorably to the adjuvant in specific vaccine brands or antigen/adjuvant combinations.

When a horse develops a sore neck after vaccination, it is important to notice whether or not the horse is systemically ill.  Specifically, is the horse eating and drinking? Does he have a fever? Is the swelling at the vaccination site severe and increasing? If your horse has an adverse vaccination reaction, I recommend that you contact your veterinarian with this information in hand so that an accurate decision can be made concerning the need for treatment.

 

Clostridial myositis is a rare, serious complication following intramuscular injection. Clostridial bacteria exist normally in the environment in a spore form.  Even when a clean needle and syringe are used and an injection is administered correctly, it is possible for the needle to carry Clostridial spores deep into the muscle tissue.  These bacteria then grow rapidly, releasing toxins into the horse’s bloodstream. Clostridial infections at injection sites are rare, but can be life threatening and require prompt and aggressive treatment.

   Amanda & I look forward to seeing you in March!


Spring Vaccination Clinic Schedule

Spring exams include tetanus/encephalitis, flu/rhino and West Nile vaccinations plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.

To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:
  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
  • We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Mar 7
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Mar 13

Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1          Sun Mar 8
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2           Fri Mar 27

Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1        Sat Mar 14
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2        Fri Mar 20

Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Mar 15
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Mar 27  
 
South & West Reno 1                          Mon Mar 16
South & West Reno                             Sat Mar 28

Clinic Day Only Discounts – Held over from 2014!

Farm Call                                  $  8.00
Wellness Exam                         $12.00
West Nile                                   $32.00
FluRhino                                     $27.00
Rabies                                        $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                    $14.00
Coggins Test                               $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation            $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                    $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)          No charge!

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