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Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Fall Clinic Schedule




Routine Fall exams include flu/rhino vaccination plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.  Also this year consider Microchip!

To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:

  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Sept 5
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Sept 11
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1            Fri Sept 4
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2            Sun Sept 13
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1          Sat Sept 12
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2          Fri Sept 25
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Sept 6
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Sept 25  
South & West Reno 1                            Mon  Sept 14 
South & West Reno                               Sat Sept 26

Discounted prices ONLY AVAILABLE Clinic Day

Farm Call                                     $ 8.00
Wellness Exam (mandatory)    $12.00
West Nile                                     $32.00
FluRhino                                       $27.00
Rabies                                           $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                   $14.00
Coggins Test                                $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation           $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                   $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)         No charge!
Pre-registered microchip          $35.00

Thursday, February 26, 2015

spring 2015 News & Notes


High Desert Veterinary Service

Chrysann Collatos VMD,PhD,DipACVIMLA
775-969-3495 (Office)          742-2823 (Cell)
hidvet@gmail.com       HighDesertEquine.com
Building Healthy Partners
 
Spring 2015 News & Notes:
Ø Vaccination Clinic Schedule
Ø Veterinary Networking and Referral
Ø Adverse Vaccination Reactions
 
Here we are again, moving into a new year.  I hope everyone is healthy and ready to ride!
After this VERY warm, VERY dry winter, both plants and animals may be subject to unusual disease patterns this spring. Vaccination against vector borne diseases such as West Nile Virus will be particularly important this year, and I strongly recommend a fecal exam on every horse to identify those infected by overwintering parasites.
Consult the clinic schedule in this flyer, and call to confirm your appointment today.  I will see you then!
Building Healthy Partners,
Dr, Chrysann

Veterinary Networking & Referral
     Last week a veterinarian called me for consultation on a horse he had diagnosed with equine metabolic syndrome.  The veterinarian had some questions about the horse’s latest laboratory values, and how to move forward with a treatment plan.  I offered my interpretation of the horse’s laboratory results and made some suggestions regarding treatment . The veterinarian called me because I am a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, which means that after receiving my veterinary degree I successfully completed a 3 year clinical residency training program and a rigorous 8 hour examination process and case report publication to ensure my advanced knowledge and experience diagnosing and treating internal medicine problems.     

     On the flip side, I called my friend Dr. Robert Hunt for advice on a yearling with an atypical stifle lameness.  Dr. Hunt is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and resident surgeon at Hagyard-Davidson Magee in Lexington, Kentucky. Bob and I discussed the case as he examined the digital xrays I had emailed him. He gave me his opinion on the radiographic changes and some suggestions on treatment options. 

     This type of congenial exchange of information goes on, often without your knowledge, as a routine part of your animal’s veterinary care. The variety of problems presented to the ambulatory equine clinician is enormous, and maintaining this network of colleagues is a critical part of my service to you.  After 27 years as a practicing veterinarian, the majority of patients I see exhibit clinical signs with which I am familiar, and diagnostic and treatment plans are frequently routine.  However, when an animal presents with a complex complaint outside of my expertise, I do not hesitate to seek consultation.  Sometimes the initial conversation with a specialist leads to the referral of the patient for advanced diagnostic evaluation.

     Helping you decide when to refer a patient is an important part of my job.  You should never feel awkward asking for a second opinion from a specialist - I am here to help you find the most effective plan to return your horse to full health and athletic activity .   Following referral for advanced diagnostics and evaluation by a specialist, your horse will return to my care for ongoing treatment and rehabilitation.  By asking me to make the initial contact leading to referral, you insure that any diagnostic findings, as well as my clinical notes, will be part of the information that will accompany your horse to their appointment.   

     There are 21 specialty colleges of veterinary medicine recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association! In the greater Reno area we have 2 board certified equine surgeons, 1 large animal internist (yours truly!), and a board certified ophthalmologist who sees both large and small animal patients.  UC Davis is 3 hours away and offers specialists in most of the large animal disciplines.  To learn more about veterinary specialists, google AVMA specialty organizations.
 

Adverse Vaccination Reactions –
What you Should Know

 Every spring I administer over a thousand vaccinations by deep intramuscular injection. I  field approximately 5 calls (< 1.5% of horses vaccinated) with reports of adverse vaccination reactions.  In my 27 years of veterinary practice, I have seen 3 true allergic/anaphylactic responses to intramuscular vaccination, and one serious vaccination complication associated with intranasal Strangles vaccine. Vaccination is a safe, effective way to protect your horse against disease. However, you should be familiar with adverse vaccination reactions, and how to respond.


By far the most common adverse reaction to vaccination is the simple sore neck. The day after vaccination you may notice that your mare is unwilling to move her head, and she exhibits pain and swelling at one of her vaccination sites. Occasionally the discomfort will be so severe that a horse will not lower their head to eat or drink, or will pull back if pressure is applied to a lead rope when they are haltered.  These inflammatory reactions typically resolve within 48 - 72 hours with treatment including warm compresses, offering food and water at a comfortable height, and administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication.

This "sore neck" reaction is NOT an allergic response to the vaccine. True allergic responses occur immediately, or within minutes, of vaccination. Rather, these are exaggerated inflammatory responses to the ingredient in the vaccine that stimulates the horse's immune system.  Called an adjuvant, this ingredient amplifies your horse’s response to the vaccine’s disease organism.  The ideal adjuvant is a potent stimulator of the immune system but does not cause severe local soreness. Unfortunately, individual horses may respond unfavorably to the adjuvant in specific vaccine brands or antigen/adjuvant combinations.

When a horse develops a sore neck after vaccination, it is important to notice whether or not the horse is systemically ill.  Specifically, is the horse eating and drinking? Does he have a fever? Is the swelling at the vaccination site severe and increasing? If your horse has an adverse vaccination reaction, I recommend that you contact your veterinarian with this information in hand so that an accurate decision can be made concerning the need for treatment.

 

Clostridial myositis is a rare, serious complication following intramuscular injection. Clostridial bacteria exist normally in the environment in a spore form.  Even when a clean needle and syringe are used and an injection is administered correctly, it is possible for the needle to carry Clostridial spores deep into the muscle tissue.  These bacteria then grow rapidly, releasing toxins into the horse’s bloodstream. Clostridial infections at injection sites are rare, but can be life threatening and require prompt and aggressive treatment.

   Amanda & I look forward to seeing you in March!


Spring Vaccination Clinic Schedule

Spring exams include tetanus/encephalitis, flu/rhino and West Nile vaccinations plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.

To reserve an appointment, call 775 969 3495 with:
  • Your Name, Phone # and Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
  • We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Mar 7
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Mar 13

Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1          Sun Mar 8
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2           Fri Mar 27

Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1        Sat Mar 14
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2        Fri Mar 20

Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Mar 15
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Mar 27  
 
South & West Reno 1                          Mon Mar 16
South & West Reno                             Sat Mar 28

Clinic Day Only Discounts – Held over from 2014!

Farm Call                                  $  8.00
Wellness Exam                         $12.00
West Nile                                   $32.00
FluRhino                                     $27.00
Rabies                                        $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                $18.00
Ivermectin Deworm                    $14.00
Coggins Test                               $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation            $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                    $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)          No charge!

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Fall 2014 News & Notes


 

 

 
Fall 2014 News &Notes

Vaccination Clinic Schedule

 Equine Dentistry: Why? When? How?

TCVM: What is it?  Does it Work?

 When we see you in September ask Dr. C about her latest Equine Acupuncture training module at the Chi Institute in Florida.

 
Fall Vaccination Clinic Schedule

Fall exams include flu/rhino booster vaccination and  deworming or fecal examination and sheath cleaning for geldings.  Many of your horses also are due for annual dentistry.

To reserve an appointment, call the office and leave:
  • Name, Phone #, Clinic Date
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested.
  • We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Sep 6
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Sep 12

Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1          Sat Sep 6
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2           Fri Sep 26

Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1        Sat Sep 13
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2        Sun Sep 28

Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Sep 14
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Sep 26  

South & West Reno 1                    Sat Sep 27

Discounted Price List – Clinic days only

Farm Call/Fall Exam                  $18.00
West Nile                                   $32.00
FluRhino                                     $28.00
Rabies                                        $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis              $18.00
Intranasal Strangles                 $32.00
Ivermectin Deworm                 $14.00
Coggins Test                              $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation        $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                 $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)       No charge!

Equine Dentistry: Why? When? How?

Why?  Because horses are no longer grazers.

Many of you have asked me “how do the Mustangs survive without dental work?” Here’s the answer: they chew more. The equine tooth evolved some 25 million years ago in response to changes in the earth’s vegetation. Available forage went from soft leaves to tough, fibrous grasses. In order to adequately break down this material, the horse developed hypsodont teeth, which erupt continuously throughout life. Each tooth is worn down by rubbing against an opposing tooth, creating an ever changing biting surface with ongoing wear of these surfaces determined by the horse’s diet and chew cycle.

Three factors contribute to wear of the horse’s teeth: the interaction between the two biting surfaces, the time spent chewing and the nature of the material being chewed. Research has shown that horses at pasture chew more and with more lateral (side to side) motion than horses fed a mixed hay/grain diet. Specifically, horses eating hay chew 58-66 times per minute vs. horses at pasture which chew 100-105 times per minute! In addition, horses eating a hay only diet take 16 hours to chew their daily ration while those on a hay/grain mix diet only need 6 hours to chew  their daily feed.

So our performance horses chew slower, for less time, and less effectively than their mustang counterparts. Therefore, they don’t do a good job of floating their own teeth, and small dental abnormalities that would self-correct on a tough grass mustang diet become serious dental issues without regular dental care in our horses living in confinement.

When? Once a year beginning at 2 years old.

Prevention is the key to healthy dentition as your horse ages.  Because their teeth erupt throughout life, and very few horses are born with a perfectly balanced bite, small imbalances become BIG imbalances as years pass.  The horse only has so much tooth, and with advanced age each tooth pushes to the surface and eventually falls out.  The most common occlusal problem encountered is a wave mouth, where the biting surface becomes a roller coaster ride instead of a level grinding plane, with some very long upper teeth opposed by very short lower teeth. The only way to correct the wave is to shorten the longer teeth. It can become impossible to achieve this in older horses with limited remaining tooth and poorly maintained bites.   EARLY AND REGULAR  dental care are the keys to healthy teeth as your horse ages.  If you wait until you notice weight loss, difficulty chewing, or dropping food (quidding) to have your horse’s teeth examined, it may be too late.

 

How? Dr. C prefers hand floats!

During a tooth float  Dr. Chrysann will carefully reduce any dominant teeth and level the chewing surface with a titanium coated tooth float. Dominant teeth create and are created by abnormalities in the chewing surface, or dental arcade which worsen over time and impede chewing and normal jaw movements. Some common configurations she may correct are hooks, ramps, transverse ridges and a wave which is caused by multiple dominant teeth. She will then adjust the alignment of the incisors, as small changes in the incisors will make a large difference in the occlusion at the back of the mouth. The specialized hand floats which Dr. Collatos uses are exceptionally sharp, and allow her to carefully balance each tooth in the mouth individually.

The use of motorized dentistry tools has become common in equine practice, and these tools are necessary in some cases of neglected mouths with severe bite abnormalities.  However, in the regularly maintained mouth, the use of motorized tools is unnecessary, and can cause permanent damage to teeth.  Prolonged grinding with motorized dental tools can create intense heat due to high rotational speed. Research studies have shown that temperatures reached with high speed (12,000 rpm) motorized floats can destroy dental pulp cells with resulting permanent damage to the tooth.  In addition, it is very easy to “overfloat” or remove excessive tooth material, with motorized tools.  Horses teeth are NOT smooth or rounded naturally, and the tearing and grinding action of normal anatomical sharp borders are the essential first step in the digestive process.

When performed correctly, the goal of equine dentistry is to balance the horse’s bite while leaving the natural contours of the tooth intact. This ensures longevity of a functional bite as your horse ages, reducing the need for costly senior diets.  It also allows free movement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) which insures not only correct chewing of food, but correct alignment of the head and neck.  Hock soreness and back pain can be the result of a poorly balanced mouth in performance horses!

TCVM – Are you a believer?

Dr. Chrysann is learning the practice of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM), with an emphasis on Acupuncture.  Does it work in horses? Yes, it does, when performed correctly, with an accurate and appropriate diagnosis.  TCVM is based on the ancient concept that energy follows specific anatomic pathways, called meridians.  Meridians have now been mapped using modern scientific methods.  If a radio signal is introduced at one acupuncture point, it accumulates at other points along that  meridian, but NOT at points on other meridians.  Also, MRI brain images have shown that pain related acupuncture points activate specific pain-associated brainstem regions, while sham points do not.  Join Dr. C in expanding our ability to keep our horses healthy  and comfortable by using TCVM and acupuncture.

Make your Fall Clinic appointment today, and don’t forget your dental exam!

Friday, July 25, 2014

Neck Injections/Cervical Facet Injections

Neck Injections/Cervical Facet Injections

Look carefully at this radiograph.  These are the fourth, fifth and sixth cervical (neck) vertebrae of a 14 year old equitation horses with severe left forelimb lameness.  Let your eye move along the top edge of the bones from left to right.  Do you see the fracture fragment, irregular boney growth (exostoses), and loss of joint architecture (degenerative joint disease) at the top joint (dorsal facets) between the last two vertebral bodies? This is arthritis, and it can develop in the neck in the same way it can in any other joint in the body. 

The joints between each of our vertebrae, whether horse or human, have the same function as any other joint in the body, which is to cushion compression forces during motion .  In the horse, particularly jumping and dressage horses, flexion of the neck during athletic performance increases the compressive forces on the lower neck joints, or C3 through C7.  Over time, this repetitive trauma can overcome the body's natural ability to dampen these concussive forces.  Inflammation results, with subsequent degradation of joint fluid and intervertebral disc material.  Ultimately, in an effort to stabilize the joint, the body begins to lay down additional bone.  What was once a dynamic, spring-like mechanism, becomes brittle and rigid.  This is degenerative joint disease (DJD), commonly called arthritis.  In the neck, DJD can be responsible for clinical signs as subtle as occasional tripping, progressing up through severe neurologic instability.  Primary forelimb lameness is an unusual, but well documented, clinical sign occasionally caused by cervical DJD.  All other causes of forelimb lameness must be ruled out with a careful lameness evaluation and localizing nerve blocks before such lameness is attributed to cervical DJD.

The dorsal facets are the knobby boney structures at the top of each cervical vertebral body.  The positive clinical outcome of injecting anti-inflammatory and lubricating medications (steroids and hyaluronic acid) into the space between the dorsal facets is well documented.  The sterile injection procedure is done with ultrasound guidance in the standing, sedated horse.  The response to injections varies considerably from horse to horse, both with respect to effectiveness and duration. 

In addition to intra-articular facet injections, modalities including acupuncture, laser therapy and physical therapy by a QUALIFIED equine physical therapist can provide important  benefits to horses with cervical DJD.

 The horse with the radiographic changes pictured here improved 75% after facet injections, however, the severity of these radiographic changes and of his lameness were cause for retirement to pasture turn out.  His owner and trainer were happy to honor him with this option in return for his years of service as a show jumper and equitation horse.

If your horse has unexplained stiffness, difficulty turning, repeated tripping, or undiagnosed forelimb lameness, ask your veterinarian about the possibility of a neck problem.



I believe that education is the key to evolution. I believe that animals are the key to compassion. I believe the learning never stops.

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Spring News & Notes


High Desert Veterinary Service

Building Healthy Partnerships

Chrysann Collatos VMD,PhD,DipACVIM
775-969-3495 (Office)          742-2823 (Cell)
HighDesertEquine.com

Spring 2014 News & Notes:

Ø Vaccination Clinic Schedule

Ø Acupuncture & Physical Therapy

Ø Your Mare and Spring Transition

It is time for our seasonal reunion during your horse’s spring wellness exam.  My technician Amanda and I have lots to share as we head into 2014 revitalized by continuing education and new diagnostic equipment.  All to better serve every aspect of your horse’s health care.

CALL TODAY TO SCHEDULE YOUR APPOINTMENT
For the welfare of the horse,

Dr.Chrysann

Spring Vaccination Clinic Schedule

Spring exams include tetanus/encephalitis, flu/rhino and West Nile vaccinations plus deworming or fecal examination, an oral exam, and sheath cleaning.
To reserve an appointment, call the office and leave:
  • Name, Phone #, Clinic Date,
  • Number of Animals, and Services requested
We will return your call three days before your clinic with an estimated time of arrival at your address.  Please be sure horses are caught and haltered 30 minutes beforehand!

Location                                             Date

Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos1         Sat Mar 8
Rancho Haven/Sierra Ranchos2         Fri Mar 14
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 1          Sun Mar 9
Red Rock North/Silver Knolls 2          Fri Mar 27
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 1        Fri Mar 7
Span Springs/Palomino Valley 2        Sat Mar 22
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 1   Sun Mar 16
Antelope/Golden/Lemmon Valley 2   Fri Mar 28  
South & West Reno 1                   Sat Mar 29
Discounted Price List – Clinic days only

Farm Call/Fall Exam                 $18.00
West Nile                                   $32.00
FluRhino                                     $27.00
Rabies                                        $21.00
Tetanus/ Encephalitis                $18.00
Intranasal Strangles                   $32.00
Ivermectin Deworm                   $14.00
Coggins Test                                $27.00
Sheath Clean w/sedation            $45.00
Fecal parasite exam                   $18.00
Oral Exam (w/o sedation)         No charge!

Acupuncture & Physical Therapy


As our understanding of medicine evolves, many practioners and patients alike are coming to a deeper appreciation of alternative medical interventions. Modalities such as acupuncture can play a vital role in healing, and can complement traditional western medicine treatments. 

I am excited to announce my enrollment at the Chi Instititute, located in Ocala, Florida.  Over the next 6 months I will be studying the art of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, with particular emphasis on equine acupuncture.  The first segment of this intensive training program happens on line, and as I watch the initial lecture series, my hard-wired analytical intellect is doing  some serious adjusting as I listen to discussions of Chi and Bian Zheng and Yin Yang theory and wonder if my young anglo-arab has a fire, wood, water, earth, or metal constitution!

My course lecturers are veterinarians with advanced degrees, one is Associate Professor of Neurology & Neurosurgery at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, another a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine board certified in Neurology.  These veterinarians have taken their advanced western training and embraced Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine because they have discovered, through years of practice, that acupuncture can provide healing opportunities that cannot be achieved with the current tools of Western Veterinary medicine.

In addition to acupuncture, another important aspect of our integrative approach to whole horse health is equine physical therapy.  Denise Montagne PT, an equine physical therapist registered with the Nevada State Veterinary Board, has been assisting me in treating horses with complex musculoskeletal conditions.  Denise’s knowledge of anatomy combined with her empathic nature and years of manual therapy skills make her a smokin’ addition to our horse healing practice.

Denise and I are excited about combining acupuncture, western medicine and manual therapy to ensure long, comfortable athletic careers for our equine partners.  Is your horse girthy?  Unwilling to engage or move forward? Unbalanced in one direction? Stiff turning one way? Call me to discuss your concerns. Let’s work together to make your horse the best he/she can be.

   

The Mare's Transitional Period

In the past week I've had conversations with clients concerned about performance mares exhibiting unusual behavior or brood mares showing irregular heat cycles.  Both of these problems are related to the seasonal nature of the mare's reproductive cycle, and specifically the transitional period that affects many mares between January and April.

Seasonal variation in the duration of daylight has a profound influence on equine reproductive performance.  The horse is a seasonal breeder - increasing daylight improves the mare's reproductive efficiency while short days result in poor reproductive regulation.  Daylight is believed to act by stimulating the production of melatonin by the brain’s pineal gland.  This melatonin in turn causes the hypothalamus to release reproductive hormones which influence the ovaries to develop and release follicles. 

The transition from the short days of winter when most mares stop cycling all together, to the long days of June, when fertility is at its highest, is a gradual process.  During the spring and fall, mares enter a period of anovulatory receptivity, or the transitional period.  At this time, they often exhibit erratic estrus behavior, and while they appear to be in standing heat and accept a stallion, there often is not an associated ovulation of a mature follicle.  Even if a transitional mare does ovulate appropriately, the hormonal sequence necessary to maintain pregnancy may not be in place and the conceptus is lost.  Particularly in the spring, this transitional period is characterized by long, erratic heat cycles without ovulation. 

During the transition period performance horses often exhibit irritable behavior and are difficult to train.  There are many oral supplements available over the counter which claim to improve the demeanor of irritable mares. The effectiveness of these supplements is variable.  For years people have used cattle subcutaneous hormonal implants to control mare's heat cycles, but multiple research trials have been performed using these implants and no one has ever been able to show that they have any real effect on the mare's hormonal regulation. In the past the only truly reliable means of preventing cycling was the daily administration of  oral Regumate liquid (altrenogest, a synthetic progesterone). Now we also have a time released injectable altrenogest manufactured by BET Pharm, which provides 30 days of active estrus suppression.

Once the transitional period is over and mares are cycling regularly, reproductive efficiency rapidly improves.  The "normal" mare has a 21 day heat cycle.  She is not receptive for 14-15 days (diestrus), then comes into heat for 4-7 days (estrus), ovulating 12-24 hours before behavioral signs of estrus disappear. Regarding performance horses, some mares continue to be difficult during the days close to ovulation, but in general the number of days when undesirable behavior is exhibited are markedly reduced.





So, when your mare is acting like a maniac in February and March, remember that part of her behavior may be attributed to temporary hormonal imbalance  Mares, just like people, are very individual in their reaction to their internal chemistryIf you own a mare you are trying to breed in the early spring, or a performance horse with seasonal behavior problems, ask me about management practices that may improve your breeding success or help your mare's disposition. 



Don’t forget to “Like” us on Facebook at HighDesertEquine.com, and call today to schedule your clinic appointment!

 


I believe that education is the key to evolution. I believe that animals are the key to compassion. I believe the learning never stops.

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